Approved: 4 Nov 2010. Last amended: 10 Mar 2023.

3.1 Bronchodilators

3.1.1 Adrenoceptor agonists Short-acting beta2 agonists (SABAs)

  • Salbutamol MDI

    Prescribe a lower carbon footprint brand e.g. Salamol®

  • Easyhaler® Salbutamol

    Salbutamol DPI

  • Salbutamol


  • Long-Acting Beta2 Agonists (LABAs)

  • Atimos Modulite® MDI


  • EasyHaler® Formoterol DPI


  • 3.1.2 Antimuscarinic bronchodilators Short-Acting Muscarinic Antagonists (SAMAs)

  • Ipratropium MDI
  • Ipratropium


  • Long-Acting Muscarinic Antagonists (LAMAs)

  • Incruse Ellipta® DPI


  • Sprivia Respimat® MDI


  • 3.1.3 Theophylline

  • Theophylline (Uniphyllin®) m/r


  • Aminophylline


  • 3.1.4 Compound bronchodilator preparations

  • Anoro Ellipta® DPI

    (umeclidinium 55mcg / vilanterol 22mcg)

  • Spiolto Respimat® MDI

    (tiotropium 2.5mcg / olodaterol 2.5mcg)

  • 3.1.5 Peak flow meters, inhaler devices and nebulisers Peak flow meters

  • Peak Flow Meter (standard and low range)
  • Drug delivery devices - Spacers

    Spacers should be replaced every 12 months but some may need changing at six months.

    The spacer should be compatible with the MDI being used.

    Spacers should be cleaned monthly. Follow manufacturer's instructions.

  • Space Chamber Plus

    (one piece small volume spacer) – Compatible with most MDI devices

  • Aero Chamber Plus

    (one piece medium volume spacer) – Compatible with most MDI devices

  • Volumatic

    (two piece larger volume spacer) – Compatible with Clenil®, Flixotide®, Salamol®, Seretide®, Serevent®, Ventolin®

  • Sodium Chloride for Nebulisation


  • Sodium chloride 0.9%
  • Specific Indication

  • Sodium chloride 7%

    Cystic Fibrosis. Specialist use only

  • 3.2 Corticosteroids

    3.2.1 General

  • Prednisolone (oral)

    Note: EC preparations are not recommended

  • Hydrocortisone (IV)

    when oral unsuitable

  • 3.2.2 Inhalers

  • Kelhale® MDI


    Prescribe by brand name: Kelhale® contains ultrafine particles so is 2-2.5 times more potent than standard beclometasone containing inhalers at the same dose)

  • Easyhaler® Beclometasone DPI


  • 3.2.3 Compound Preparations Asthma

    First choice formulary recommended inhalers for adults (≥18 years):


  • Fobumix Easyhaler® DPI

    Budesonide & formoterol

  • Combisal® MDI

    Fluticasone & salmeterol

  • Relvar Ellipta® DPI

    Fluticasone furoate & vilanterol

  • Specific Indication

  • Luforbec® 100/6 MDI

    Beclometasone & formoterol. Maintenance and Reliever Therapy (MART)

    Note: The beclometasone in Luforbec® is characterised by an extrafine particle size distribution (similar to QVAR® and Fostair®) which results in twice the potentcy of standard formulations such as Clenil®.

  • COPD

  • Luforbec® 100/6 MDI

    Beclometasone & formoterol.

  • Relvar Ellipta® 92/22 DPI

    Fluticasone furoate & vilanterol

  • Trelegy Ellipta® DPI

    Fluticasone furoate, umeclidinium & vilanterol

  • Trimbow® MDI

    Beclometasone, formoterol & glycopyrronium

  • 3.3 Cromoglicate, related therapy and leukotriene receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase type-4 inhibitors

    3.3.1 Cromoglicate and related therapy

  • None
  • 3.3.2 Leukotriene receptor antagonists


  • Montelukast
  • 3.3.3 Phosphodiesterase type-4 inhibitors

  • Roflumilast
  • 3.4 Antihistamines, hyposensitisation, and allergic emergencies

    3.4.1 Antihistamines Non-sedating antihistamines


  • Loratadine
  • Cetirizine
  • Fexofenadine
  • Specific Indication

  • Rupatadine

    4th line for chronic idiopathic urticaria

  • Sedating antihistamines


  • Chlorphenamine
  • Alternative

  • Hydroxyzine
  • Promethazine
  • Allergen immunotherapy

    Specific Indication

  • Benralizumab

    as per NICE TA565

  • Dupilimab

    as per NICE TA751

  • Mepolizumab

    as per NICE TA671

  • Omalizumab
  • Palforzia

    Peanut allergy NICE TA769

  • Reslizumab

    as per NICE TA479

  • Pharmalgen®

    as per NICE TA246

  • Grazax®

    Severe grass pollen allergy
    Shared Care Guideline

  • Acarizax® (unlicensed)

    Severe house dust mite allergy

  • 3.4.2 Allergic emergencies Anaphylaxis

  • Adrenaline

    1 in 1,000: IM

  • Adrenaline (1 in 1,000) 150mcg and 300mcg Auto-Injector for self-administration IM

    Training for the specific auto-injector device must be given

  • Adrenaline

    1 in 10,000: slow IV injection reserved for severely ill patients where there is doubt about adequacy of the circulation and absorption from the IM site; with ECG monitoring.

  • Chlorphenamine

    slow IV injection

  • Hydrocortisone (sodium succinate)


  • Angioedema

  • Berotralstat

    Prevention of recurrent attacks of hereditary angioedema, as per NICE TA738

  • C1-esterase inhibitor

    Acute attacks in hereditary angioedema. Specialist only, as per NHSE Criteria

  • Conestat alfa

    Acute attacks in hereditary angioedema. Specialist only, as per NHSE Criteria

  • Icatibant

    Acute attacks in hereditary angioedema. Specialist only, as per NHSE Criteria

  • Lanadelumab

    Prevention of recurrent attacks of hereditary angioedema, as per NICE TA606

  • 3.5 Respiratory stimulants and pulmonary surfactants

    3.5.1 Respiratory stimulants

  • Doxapram

    must be given under expert supervision and combined with active physiotherapy.

  • Mannitol (Osmohale®)

    bronchial provocation test.

  • 3.5.2 Pulmonary surfactants

  • None
  • 3.6 Oxygen

    See oxygen prescription chart and local guidelines

    3.7 Mucolytics

  • Carbocisteine

    Consider trial in COPD patients with chronic productive cough (as per NICE guidelines). Stop if no benefit within 4 weeks

  • Erdosteine

    Acute exacerbation of COPD. Respiratory Consultants only. Max 10 days.

  • Mannitol (Bronchitol®)

    dry powder for inhalation – Cystic Fibrosis as per NICE TA266

  • 3.7.1 Dornase alfa

  • Dornase alfa

    Cystic Fibrosis

  • 3.7.2 Mucous Clearing Devices

  • Acapella Choice®

    On the advice of a Respiratory Physiotherapist

  • 3.8 Aromatic inhalations

  • None
  • 3.9 Cough preparations

    3.9.1 Cough suppressants


  • Pholcodine
  • Methadone linctus

    cough in terminal disease

  • Morphine

    cough in terminal disease

  • 3.9.2 Demulcent and expectorant cough preparations

  • Simple linctus
  • 3.10 Systemic nasal decongestants

    Systemic nasal decongestants are classified in the BNF as being of limited therapeutic value

    3.11 Antifibrotics

  • Pirfenidone

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: NICE TA504

  • Nintedanib

    Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: NICE TA379

  • 3.12 Miscellaneous

  • N-acetylcysteine

    (oral) – Usual Interstitial Pneumonitis

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